Download English Online: Animal Collage, Intermediate 1 by Debbie Lahav, Liora Minkin Nurick, Arlene Ruttenberg, Ben PDF

By Debbie Lahav, Liora Minkin Nurick, Arlene Ruttenberg, Ben Sommer

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Wenzel M, Klauke M, Gessenhardt F et al (2005) Sterile water is unnecessary in a continuous positive airway pressure convection-type humidifier in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Chest 128:2138–2140 11. Schumann S, Stahl CA, Möller K et al (2007) Moisturing and mechanical characteristics of a new counter-flow type heated humidifier. Br J Anaesth 98:531–538 12. Lacherade JC, Auburtin M, Cerf C et al (2005) Impact of humidification systems on ventilatorassociated pneumonia. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 172:1276–1282 13.

Who examined 14 patients with acute respiratory failure. With two different HME devices they observed an increase in WOB that could be overcome by increasing inspiratory pressure in the range of 5–10 cmH2O [15]. Girault et al. examined the mechanical effects of different humidification devices in difficult to wean patients [16]. In comparison to HHs, HMEs significantly increased transdiaphragmatic pressure and inspiratory WOB, which could be partly counterbalanced by elevation of inspiratory pressure of the ventilator by ³8 cmH2O.

Lotti GA, Olivei MC, Palo M (1997) Unfavorable mechanical effects of heat and moisture exchangers in ventilated patients. Intensive Care Med L3:399–405 40 F. Michel et al. 16. Pelosi P, Solca M, Ravagnan I, Tubiolo D, Ferrario L, Gattinoni L (1996) Effects of heat and moisture exchangers on minute ventilation ventilatory drive, and work of breathing during pressure-support ventilation in acute respiratory. Crit Care Med 24:1184–1188 17. Conti G, De BR, Rocco M, Pelaia P, Antonelli M, Bufi M et al (1990) Effects of the heatmoisture exchangers on dynamic hyperinflation of mechanically ventilated COPD patients.

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