Download Czech (Languages of the world) by Laura A Janda PDF

By Laura A Janda

This grammatical cartoon of Czech is meant to function a descriptive guide unencumbered through the perspective of anyone theoretical framework. The creation will provide a survey of the positioning and variety of audio system, in addition to the relation of Czech to different languages, and the relatives of literary Czech to its variations (dialectology and diglossia). The bankruptcy on phonology will specialize in vowel volume, assimilations, and the prosodic habit of clitics. The bankruptcy on morphology will aspect the grammatical different types expressed within the language and the technique of their expression, with distinct emphasis on morphophonemic alternations. this can be to be via a bankruptcy on syntax, so as to deal with the meanings and makes use of of instances and prepositions, numeral structures, clause constitution, a number of negation, use of passive and causative structures, coordination and subordination of clauses, and discourse phenomena. A separate bankruptcy may be dedicated to the difficulty of diglossia in Czech, outlining the phonological, morphological, syntactic, and lexical alterations that exist among the 2 "standard" codes of the language, literary Czech and spoken Czech. The booklet will shut with short texts to function examples of the 2 codes, each one with an interlinear transcription and translation into English.

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With compound numerals all items are ordinal: st´ sedmdes‡t´ p‡t´ Ôone hundred seventy fifthÕ, however this usage is quite bookish and it is more normal to use cardinal forms for numerals above ninety, followed by ordinal forms for the final two digits: sto sedmdes‡t´ p‡t´. As with cardinal numerals, two-digit numerals between 21 and 99 (excluding the even tens, which consist of only one word) have two possibilities: both dvac‡t´ t¤et’ and t¤iadvac‡t´ express Ôtwenty-thirdÕ. Indefinite numerals Kolik Ôhow manyÕ, n«kolik ÔseveralÕ, tolik Ôso manyÕ, and mnoho Ômuch, manyÕ all follow the same paradigm, with the desinence -a in all oblique cases.

B. if the resulting form ends in a consonant cluster, the imperative endings are -i, -«me, -«te, which condition Type 1 alternations (cf. zvi, zv«me, zv«te ÔcallÕ). Õ. The particles atÕ/nechtÕ can also be used with first and second person non-past forms: AtÕ neud«l‡£ ¢‡dnŽ chyby! Õ, AtÕ ho u¢ v’ckr‡t neuvid’m! Õ. Gerunds and active participles In addition to the forms cited above, the paradigm of a verb may include a present gerund, a past gerund, and both present and past active participles. The present gerund is formed using the following endings, depending upon the conjugation type and the gender and number: Type I and Type II verbs m: -e d«laje f or n: -’c d«laj’c Ôwhile doingÕ pl: -’ce d«laj’ce Type III verbs m: -a veda f or n: -ouc vedouc Ôwhile leadingÕ pl: -ouce vedouce The present active participle is formed by adding the soft adjectival ending -’ to the feminine/neuter form of the present gerund: d«laj’c’ Ô(the one who is) doingÕ; vedouc’ Ô(the one who is) leading, bossÕ.

Jeden ÔoneÕ N (anim:) G D A (anim:) L I masculine jeden jednoho jednomu jeden jednoho jednom jedn’m singular feminine jedna neuter jedno jednŽ jednŽ jednu jednoho jednomu jedno jednŽ jednou jednom jedn’m NA GL DI Oba ÔbothÕ shares this paradigm. NA G D L I masculine jedny jedni jedny plural feminine jedny neuter jedna jedn«ch jedn«m jedny jedna jedn«ch jedn«mi dva ÔtwoÕ masculine feminine + neuter dva dv« dvou dv«ma t¤i ÔthreeÕ and ªty¤i ÔfourÕ t¤i ªty¤i t¤’ ªty¤ t¤em ªty¤em t¤ech ªty¤ech t¤emi ªty¤mi The numerals ÔfiveÕ- ÔnineteenÕ; the eight multiples of ÔtenÕ, ÔtwentyÕ - ÔninetyÕ and all inverted (one-word) numerals have zero-ending in the NA and -i for all oblique cases (GDLI).

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