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By Nicholas S. Vonortas (auth.)

Cooperation in learn and Development offers an empirical and theoretical research of a different type of inter-firm collaboration in learn & improvement (R&D): examine joint ventures (RJVs). Of all kinds of cooperation, RJVs have got the main cognizance in either formal commercial association and technological know-how and expertise coverage literature. The rising theoretical fiscal literature on incentives of corporations to hitch RJVs has no longer been by means of a lot empirical paintings. Cooperation in learn and Development makes an attempt to fill the void because of this loss of constant information at the expense of RJV formation, RJV features, and RJV member features.
major consciousness is paid to the position of RJVs in facilitating `virtual' enterprise diversification as essential to pursue specific technological goals. An attempt is usually made to mix the pronounced theoretical and empirical analyses with conceptual versions of the method of technological innovation and types of business evolution so that it will offer solutions past the succeed in of the acquired financial thought. Cooperation in learn and Development can be of curiosity to educational economists, coverage makers, and enterprise representatives. The microeconomic concerns the publication offers with overlap considerably with the pursuits of choice makers either in govt and business.

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It is also odd given that the business literature on alliances has been stressing for years that it is a large variety of objectives that induce firms to collaborate besides knowledge spillovers, cost savings, and spreading ofrisk. 9,lo Notwithstanding the limited focus of the economic debate, it clearly influenced the policy debate directly in the early 1980s in both the United States and the European Community and laid the foundations of the new policy initiatives on cooperative research implemented in 1984.

They were thought to be primarily horizontal RJVs set up to shelter the collective undertaking of research of generic interest. The outcome of this research would be utilized subsequently by each partner to enhance the partner's future competitive strength. In other words, the new, jointly developed technological knowledge would assist the creation of new products and processes through which the former coIlaborators in the RJVs would compete fiercely against each other in the output market. The idea was most intriguing: firms getting together to sharpen the tools through which they would later fight it out in the market place.

PNGV's schedule may be too aggressive, in fact. 4 (NRC,1996). The major concerns were as follows. First, most of the PNGV up to 1996 had focused on the near term Objectives 1 and 2, including the improvement of drivetrain efficiency, improvement of energy storage systems, and reducing of vehicle weight by using lightweight structural materials. While these efforts were deemed very appropriate to the objectives of PNGV, the committee felt that the significant technological innovations and breakthroughs necessary for Objective 3 were not forthcoming.

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