By L. Festinger
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Extra resources for Conflict, decision, and dissonance
Incidentally, it is worth pointing out that the Jecker result is well confirmed here. In the chosen-or-both condition there was no dissonance reduction. Let us now turn our attention to the 24 subjects who chose the alternative that they had initially rated as the less desirable. Actually, these "decision inversions" are almost non-existent in two of the four conditions. In the only-chosen and in the chosen-or-both conditions, the two conditions that were similar to those run in the Jecker experiment, there are very few such "inversions"-only two in each.
We can, however, compare the two sets of conditions. It is interesting to note that the difference is in the same direction as for the other subjects. The major difference between the two sets of conditions is in the change in attractiveness of the unchosen alternative. There is appreciable change only when it is impossible to obtain both alternatives. With such a small number of cases, and with considerable variability, this difference does not approach an acceptable level of significance. We present it merely to show that the dissonance-reduction results for these 24 subjects exhibit the same pattern that we found in the main analysis of the data.
Or, as far as we can tell from these data, it may reflect a true pre-decision process. At any rate, its effect is minor. Let us now turn our attention to the effect of the deliberationtime variable. Analysis of variance shows that its effect is significant at the 6 per cent level. This difference, however, is almost entirely due to the post-decision conditions. 92). 95, which is significant at the 6 per cent level. This is an interesting and unanticipated effect. Although the difference in how much time they deliberated has only a negligible effect on what happens before the decision, it has a relatively large impact on what happens after the decision.