Download Cognitive Linguistics: Foundations, Scope, and Methodology by Theodorus Albertus Johannes Maria Janssen, Gisela Redeker PDF

By Theodorus Albertus Johannes Maria Janssen, Gisela Redeker

During this quantity, best cognitive linguists and participants from similar fields speak about and illustrate the valuable theoretical and methodological tenets of cognitive linguistics.

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Students of the diffusion of innovations note that “trialability” and “observability” are some of the most important regulators of the spread of ideas from one culture to another (Rogers 1983, pp. 231–2). Many important cultural traits, including things like family organization, have low trialability and observability and are generally rather conservative. We act as if we know that sensible choices about such behaviors are hard to make and that we are liable to err if we try to depart far from custom.

Perhaps the reason transcultural norm differences are bigger than transcultural individual differences is that it is necessary for cultures to establish rather extreme norms, to optimally motivate departure from natural predispositions (Rozin, 2003). To move a population x units in the direction of collectivism, it may be optimal to set a standard at 2x units. 11 Cultural Influence May Be More Prominent in the Area of Behavior than in the Area of Mental Events Unlike the other principles asserted in this essay, this one is based only on common sense, with no direct empirical evidence.

In a sense, preadaptation is comparable to genetic recombination, as opposed to mutation and the development of new genetic material. 53 The human mouth is a particularly appropriate and striking example of preadaptation. The teeth and tongue evolved for food processing, but they are later used by the language system for speech articulation. Notably, this is a preadapted food system being used for another purpose. Given the fundamental importance of food procurement and selection, it is not surprising that many primary adaptations would appear in this domain.

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