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By Henry F. Diaz

Glaciers within the Andes are really vital ordinary documents of current and earlier climatic and environmental adjustments, in major half due to the N-S development of this topographic barrier and its impact at the atmospheric flow of the southern hemisphere. robust gradients within the seasonality and volume of precipitation exist among the equator and 30° S. huge ameliorations in volume east and west of the Andean divide additionally ensue, in addition to a metamorphosis from tropical summer time precipitation (additionally changed through the seasonal shift of the circulate belts) to wintry weather precipitation within the west wind belt (e. g. , Yuille, 1999; Garraud and Aceituno, 2001). The so-called 'dry axis' lies among the tropical and additional­ tropical precipitation regimes (Figure 1). The excessive mountain barren region inside this axis responds such a lot sensitively to the smallest adjustments in potent moisture. an enormous hydro-meteorological function on a seasonal to inter-annual time-scale is the prevalence of EN SO occasions, which strongly keep an eye on the mass stability of glaciers during this sector (e. g. , Wagnon et ai. , 2001; Francou et ai. , in press). The precipitation trend is a crucial issue for the translation of climatic and environmental files extracted from ice cores, simply because a lot of this knowledge is expounded to stipulations on the real time of precipitation, and this can be specially so for sturdy isotope documents. numerous ice cores have lately been drilled to bedrock during this region. From Huascanin (Thompson et ai. , 1995), Sajama (Thompson et ai.

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Diaz, H. : 1998, 'Biological and Physical Signs of Climate Change. Focus on Mosquito-Borne Diseases', Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 78,410-417. Fitzharris, B. , Braithwaite, R. , Kotlyakov, V. , Prowse, T. , Rinaldi, C. , Woo, M. , and Youyu Xie: 1996, 'The Cryosphere: Changes and their Impacts', in Second Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Chapter 5, Cambridge University Press, pp. 241-265. Fosberg, M. : 1990, 'Global Change - A Challenge to Modeling', in Dixon, R.

The IPCC Third Assessment Report, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge and New York. Vols. I (The Scientific Basis), II (Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability) and III (Mitigation). Johnson, E. : 1992, Fire and Vegetation Dynamics. Studies from the North Americall Boreal Forest, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Jones, P. : 1997, 'Extension to the North Atlantic Oscillation using Early Instrumental Pressure Observations from Gibraltar and South-West Iceland', lilt. 1. Clim. 17, 1433-1450.

38 HENRY F. DIAZ ET AL. significant. , 2001). , 2001). , 2003, this volume) from ice cores of major tropical glaciers in the high Andes of South America are located largely between 10° Sand 30° S. For comparison, the lower panel of Figure 3 shows the FLH series corresponding to this highest segment ofthe American Cordillera from 10° S-30° S (elevation profile, Figure I). 65 for the period 1958-2000), significant at better than the 1% level. 17 m/year). Linear regression of the FLH data on the Nifio-3 SST values shows a change of about 76 m in FLH per °C change in SST.

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