By Sergey V. Dorozhkin
Reflecting the advances made in recent times, this can be a accomplished evaluate of calcium orthophosphates for bioceramics and biocomposites with a unique specialise in the precise description of all these on hand, together with their organic and geological prevalence, training, chemical composition, structure-property relationships and purposes. particularly, the e-book discusses the suitability of those orthophosphates for biomedical purposes and their use as bone grafts in surgical procedure and medicine.
the result's an invaluable reference for researchers with a tutorial, scientific or advertisement heritage.
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Additional resources for Calcium orthophosphate-based bioceramics and biocomposites
That is why, in literature it might be called precipitated hydroxyapatite (PHA) [162, 163]. Besides, it might be prepared by hydrolysis of α-TCP [130–132]. Other preparation techniques of CDHA are known as well [164–167]. During aging, initially precipitated ACPs are restructured and transformed into CDHA. Therefore, there are many similarities in the structure, properties, and application between the ACPs and CDHA precipitated in alkaline solutions (pH > 8). Some data indicated on the presence of intermediate phases during further hydrolysis of CDHA to a more stable HA-like phase .
1400 T (°C) C4P + α-C3P Liquid 1200 α-C2P α-C2P + +LIQ. 667 α-C3P+β-C2P β-C2P +LIQ. 1000 C2P3 + LIQ. 200 P2O5 + CP2 0 P2O5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 β-C3P + C4P 400 β-CP + C7P5 CP2 + LIQ. C2P3 + β-CP 600 C7P5 + β-C2P P2O5 + LIQ. β-C2P + β-C3P β-CP +LIQ. 1 Phase diagram of the system CaO–P2 O5 (C = CaO, P = P2 O5 ) at elevated temperatures. Here, C7 P5 means 7CaO⋅5P2 O5 ; other abbreviations should be written out in the same manner. 1) is given below. 1 MCPM MCPM (Ca(H2 PO4 )2 ⋅H2 O; the IUPAC name is calcium dihydrogen orthophosphate monohydrate) is both the most acidic and water-soluble CaPO4 .
Nevertheless, one should stress that the amount of ﬂuorides on the very surface of dental enamel might be substantially increased by using ﬂuoride-containing toothpastes and mouthwashes [285, 286]. However, in no case, the total amount of ﬂuorides is enough to form pure FA. Contrary to the initial expectations , chemically pure FA is not used for grafting purposes. Presumably, this is due to the lowest solubility, good chemical stability of FA, and toxicity of high amounts of ﬂuorides. However, attempts are on to test FA-containing formulations [288–292], ion-substituted FA [293, 294], FHA [295, 296], and porous FA bioceramics .