By Jamie A. Davies MA (Cantab.), Ph.D. (auth.)
Branching morphogenesis, the production of branched constructions within the physique, is a key function of animal and plant improvement. This booklet brings jointly, for the 1st time, specialist researchers engaged on various branching platforms to provide a state of the art view of the mechanisms that regulate branching morphogenesis. structures thought of diversity from unmarried cells, to blood vessel and drainage duct structures to whole physique plans, and methods diversity from remark via scan to targeted biophysical modelling. the result's an built-in evaluate of branching.
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Extra resources for Branching Morphogenesis
Despite their ability to exert similar influences on the cytomatrix of axons and dendrites, neurotrophic factors also can produce separate and distinct structural changes for each of these neurite classes during branching morphogenesis. ^^'^^'^^^'^^'^^^'^^^'^^^'^'^'^^^These effects are particularly well charaaerized in the vertebrate visual system. ' ^' ^^' ^^' ^ For example, BDNF promotes rapid and prolonged changes in both the complexity and dynamic state of Xenopus RGC axonal arbors in vitro, with similar effects induced through neurotrophin microinjection or delivery through microspheres localized to the optic tectum in vivo.
In combination, these recent studies demonstrate that ephrins serve numerous roles during neuronal morphogenesis, collectively regulating axonal or dendritic outgrowth, fasciculation, and arborization. Semaphorins Semaphorins constitute a large family of secreted and transmembrane proteins variously involved in growth cone collapse (CoUapsin-l/Semaphorin IIIA ^), axon guidance through chemorepulsion (CoUapsin-l/Semaphorin IIIA, HID '•^^^), stimulation or inhibition of axonal arborization (Semaphorin IILA85-87,29 ^^ ^j^j neuronal apoptosis (Semaphorin IIIA^^^).
In fact, phenotypically mature dendritic arbors fail to develop in postnatal Purkinje cells cultured in the absence of BDNF-secreting granule neurons, and appropriate dendritic differentiation is not rescued with supplemental BDNF. ^^'^^^'^^^ Instead, exogenous BDNF selectively increases dendritic spine density for these Purkinje cells, demonstrating that individual aspects of dendrite arbor structure may be independently regulated by neurotrophins during development. ^^'^^^ When considered together, recent findings indicate that a variety of pathways contribute to the spatiotemporal regulation of neurotrophin signaling, enabling the local control of dendritic branching that is necessary for establishing appropriate circuitry during nervous system development.