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By T. R. Oke

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T). Using realistic midday values of Qin=100 Wm-2, Qout=10 Wm-2, ∆z=0·5 m, for a dry clay with Cs=1·42×106 Jm-3K-1, after re-arranging the equation we find the warming rate to be: which is about 0·46 Kh-1. This concept of flux convergence and divergence in a volume (or a layer if the substance is horizontally uniform) is crucial to an understanding of how boundary layer climates are formed. It lies at the heart of how exchanges of entities such as heat, mass and momentum are related to their associated climatological properties of temperature, water vapour, wind speed, etc.

44). This effectively means that in comparison with most other natural materials it takes much more energy input to cause a similar rise in the temperature of water. Equally, subtraction of energy does not cause water to cool as rapidly. This property makes water a good energy storer, and a conservative thermal influence. Water is the only substance that exists in all of its states at temperatures normally encountered in the E-A system. In changing between ice, water and water vapour, latent heat is taken up or liberated and as a result the energy and water balances become enmeshed.

13. Thus loss of water to the air not only depletes the mass store (soil moisture) but also the energy store (soil and air temperature) as a result of taking up latent heat. Condensation operates in the reverse sense by adding to both the mass and energy stores. Melting and freezing are energetically less significant, but still of importance especially in soil climate. The measures of soil moisture content, and the processes of soil moisture movement and evaporation, are outlined in Chapter 2. (c) Other mass balances The cycles of energy and water are by far the most important in explaining surface climates, but it should be noted that there are others operating in the E-A system on similar space and time scales.

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