By David W. Cameron, Colin P. Groves
Bones, Stones and Molecules presents the very best facts for resolving the controversy among the 2 hypotheses of human origins. the controversy among the 'Out of Africa' version and the 'Multiregional' speculation is tested throughout the practical and developmental methods linked to the evolution of the human cranium and face and specializes in the importance of the Australian list. The e-book analyzes very important new discoveries that experience happened lately and examines facts that's not on hand in other places. Cameron and Groves argue that the prevailing proof helps a up to date starting place for contemporary people from Africa. in addition they particularly relate those theories to interpretations of the origins of the 1st Australians. The ebook presents an up to date interpretation of the fossil, archaeological and the molecular proof, in particular because it pertains to Asia, and Australia particularly.
* with ease obtainable to the layperson and professional
* presents concise insurance of present medical evidence
* provides a strong computer-generated version of human speciation over the past 7 million years
* good illustrated with figures and pictures of significant fossil specimens
* offers a synthesis of significant ape and human evolution
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Additional info for Bones, Stones and Molecules: "Out of Africa" and Human Origins
This is a revised version of the “Single Species Hypothesis,” originally rejected in the 1970s when the fossil evidence made it clear to all that a number of different species had to be recognized, given the great degree of variability observed with the available hominid fossil samples. The continued recovery of more fossil specimens over the last 25 years or so has provided even greater evidence that a number of hominid species were contemporary in time and space. The new version of the single species hypothesis, however, ignores the fossil evidence and is based on an abstract interpretation of the available molecular data.
Garhi Praeanthropus A. 6 ᭤ Unlike a species, which represents real biological entities, a genus is a unit of classification and is not defined by variability but by evolutionary relationships. It can be seen that the species within Paranthropus, Homo, and Kenyanthropus are each defined by a common ancestor, to the exclusion of all other taxa (monophyletic group). They are also defined by a number of unique adaptations. For example, Paranthropus species are defined by a large robust face, neuro-orbital disjunction (brain set back from the face with a low frontal), with large, grinding, stonelike molars, while Homo species have a large brain, marked neuro-orbital convergence (brain set above the face — high frontal), small face and dental complex, and a more efficient mode of bipedal locomotion.
Indeed, some consider H. habilis to represent a species of Australopithecus — A. habilis (Wood & Richmond, 2000). Infact, it is surprising that Curnoe and Thorne (2003) maintain the species distinction between africanus and habilis, which are overall very “similar,” while at the same time lumping the very different species within Paranthropus and Australopithecus into just one species, H. africanus. , 1993; see also other papers in Kimbel & Martin, 1993). This is to say that skeletal remains appear to underrepresent actual speciation: Variation is more prolific than skeletal or fossil anatomical variability.