Download Biology: The Dynamic Science, 1st Edition by Peter J. Russell, Stephen L. Wolfe, Paul E. Hertz, Cecie PDF

By Peter J. Russell, Stephen L. Wolfe, Paul E. Hertz, Cecie Starr, Beverly McMillan

Biology: The Dynamic technology is the 1st normal biology textual content with an experimental strategy that connects old examine, contemporary advances accomplished with molecular instruments, and a glimpse of the long run throughout the eyes of well-liked researchers engaged on key unanswered questions of the day. This entire framework does not come on the price of crucial strategies. fairly, it presents a significant, real looking context for studying the entire middle fabric that scholars needs to grasp of their first direction. Written "from the floor up" with minimum jargon and crisp, straightforward causes of the present nation of organic wisdom, the textual content helps scholars as they research the medical process-and how you can imagine as scientists do.

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13 Three domains of life. (a) This member of the Domain Bacteria (Helicobacter pylori) causes ulcers in the digestive systems of humans. (b) This example from the Domain Archaea (Methanosarcina species) lives in the oxygen-free muck of swamps and bogs. (c) The Domain Eukarya is divided into four kingdoms in this book. The Kingdom Protoctista is represented by a trichomonad (Trichonympha species) that lives in the gut of a termite. Coast redwoods (Sequoia sempervirens) are among the largest members of the Kingdom Plantae; the picture shows a young tree with the trunk of an older tree behind it.

Similarly, a geneticist who wants to understand the role of a particular gene in the functioning of an organism might make mutations in the gene and examine the consequences. Researchers Often Test Hypotheses with Controlled Experiments Research on a previously unexplored system usually starts with basic observations. Once a solid base of carefully observed and described facts is established, scientists may develop a hypothesis, a “working explanation” of the observed facts. And whenever scientists create a hypothesis, they simultaneously define—either explicitly or implicitly—a null hypothesis, a statement of what they would see if the hypothesis being tested is not correct.

Sandy-colored mice are well camouflaged on pale rocks, and black mice are well camouflaged on dark rocks (top); but mice with fur that does not match their backgrounds (bottom) are easy to see. 8 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGICAL CONCEPTS AND RESEARCH Favorable mutations may produce adaptations, characteristics that help an organism survive longer or reproduce more under a particular set of environmental conditions. To convey the sense of how organisms benefit from adaptations, consider an example from the recent literature on cryptic coloration (camouflage) in animals.

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