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3 84] ' Thus the plane perpendicular to the minor axis can be taken as the earth's equator. 3. While these have not been accepted by astro­ nomers yet, one may find them used more and more in the aerospace sciences. Additional detail on current activity in this field is available [7] . 2. Geodetic and Geocentric Coordinates Any point on a meridiant may be specified uniquely by identifying it with the normal (to the ellipsoid) which passes through it. This normal will not, generally, coincide with the local force vector, owing to the undulations of the geoid.

This yields the Greenwich mean sidereal time at the moment of observation : 1 8 h 58m53�433 + 09 h44m48�507 04h43m41�940 (modulo 24 hr). T. to apparent sidereal time to find the true angle between the Greenwich meridian and 'Y' . We accomplish this by applying the Equation of Equinoxes from the table on Universal and Sidereal Times. We find Equation of Equinoxes, July 7, Qh Equation of Equinoxes, July 8, Qh = = - 0�5 16 - 0�5 15. T. of Time 7] 49 observation to the decimal fraction of a day by using AENA, Table X, Co � version of Hours, Minutes, and Seconds to Decimals of a Day.

6. 1 3) 46 [7 Position in space 7. TIME As the reader knows, astrodynamic theories endeavor to give the positions of celestial bodies as functions of time. The quantity t, measured on a suitable chronometric scale, constitutes the independent variable for the resulting expres­ sions. In the present section we undertake a description of the time systems most commonly employed in astronomy. As an introduction, we review some elementary features of time scales and illustrate these by executing a standard computation for the instantaneous hour angle (or right ascension) of an earthbound observer, which we temporarily postponed in the preceding section.

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