Download Agriculture in the GATT by Timothy E. Josling, Stefan Tangermann, T. K. Warley (auth.) PDF

By Timothy E. Josling, Stefan Tangermann, T. K. Warley (auth.)

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Initially, many other countries had been able to claim GATT coverage for their import quotas under Article XII, the balance of payments exception to the use of quantitative restrictions. But this exception became more difficult to invoke as the 1950s progressed and balance of payments positions improved and exchange controls were lifted. Furthermore, in the first half of the 1950s, under the Code of Liberalization of the Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC), quantitative restrictions were progressively relaxed and removed on most nonagricultural traded products.

These four early negotiating 'rounds' (as they came to be called) did little to improve the conditions of agricultural trade. The negotiations conducted in Geneva in the period April to October 1947 had two purposes: the establishment of the General Agreement and the exchange of tariff concessions between the countries that Early Encounters: 1948-60 23 were the original signatories to the GATT. On both scores the Geneva conference was a success. The GATT was signed, and bindings and reductions were made on some 45 000 tariffs.

They would reappear in the GATT in the Kennedy Round, where a multilateral food aid commitment became part of the 1967 International Grains Arrangement. Much later, the subject surfaced a third time in the GATT in the Uruguay Round Agreement on Agriculture, where it became part of the new rules for export subsidies. Commodity Agreements Revisited In the 1950s, if those who wanted world trade in 'primary products' to be desubsidized and liberalized were to be disappointed, so too were those countries who wanted it to be organized and managed.

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