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By Shamlal Mangray, Ronald A. DeLellis (auth.), Michael A. Blake, Giles Boland (eds.)

Imaging of the adrenal gland has made great growth within the final decade as new applied sciences proceed to adapt. Adrenal Imaging highlights the pertinent medical and pathological details that underpins the actual interpretation and use of adrenal imaging. Written by means of a prestigious team of foreign individuals, person chapters in Adrenal Imaging function a suitable and up to date reference of adrenal imaging findings, algorithms and methods in CT, MR nuclear medication, intervention, and trauma. precis sections on the finish of every bankruptcy remove darkness from key instructing issues to augment retention.

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Autoantibodies to cortical cells are present in 50% of patients and in more than 70% of women with newly diagnosed disease. The major targets for autoantibody reactivity are the adrenal cytochrome p-450 enzymes [94]. Affected patients can also have antibodies to gonadal, gastric parietal, and thyroid follicular cells. Adrenal cortical hypofunction may be associated with hypofunction of other endocrine glands [95]. The type I polyglandular autoimmune syndrome is associated with mucocutaneous candidiasis, hypoparathyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, autoimmune thyroiditis, and diabetes mellitus.

Major enzymes involved in the regulation of cortisol metabolism are the two isoforms of 11bhydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11b-HSD). Hepatic 11b-HSD I converts the inactive cortisone to the active cortisol; hence mutations in this gene are associated with rapid cortisol turnover, leading to the activation of the hypothalamic- pituitaryadrenal (HPA) axis and increased adrenal androgen production. The 11b-HSD II isoform, which is coexpressed with the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in the kidney, colon and salivary gland inactivates cortisol to cortisone, permitting aldosterone to bind to the MR in vivo.

Am J Surg Pathol 30:838–843 83. Prevot S, Penna CT, Imbert J-C et al. (1996) Solitary fibrous tumor of the adrenal gland. Mod Pathol 9:1170–1174 84. Wenig B, Abbondanzo SL, Heffess C (1994) Epithelioid angiosarcoma of the adrenal glands. A clinicopathologic study of nine cases with discussion of implications of finding ‘‘epithelial-specific’’ markers. Am J Surg Pathol 18(1):62–73 1 Adrenal Embryology and Pathology 85. Granger JK, Hoan H-Y, Collins C (1991) Massive hemorrhagic functional adrenal adenoma histologically mimicking angiosarcoma: report of a case with immunohistochemical study.

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