By S. Betzelt, S. Bothfeld
This e-book analyzes in what means activation rules impression on given styles of social citizenship that predominate in nationwide contexts. It argues that the liberal paradigm of activation brought into labour industry regulations in all Western ecu states demanding situations the explicit styles of social citizenship in every one nation.
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This ebook analyzes in what means activation rules influence on given styles of social citizenship that predominate in nationwide contexts. It argues that the liberal paradigm of activation brought into labour marketplace rules in all Western eu states demanding situations the categorical styles of social citizenship in each one nation.
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Additional info for Activation and Labour Market Reforms in Europe: Challenges to Social Citizenship
If we include the shift in political power and resources in our set of basic assumptions, the observed social policy change must be considered as a paradigmatic change rather than the mere enhancement of already existing patterns and divides. 5. Bringing politics back in Sharpening the critical perspective on activation policies does not, of course, resolve the basic problem of lacking convincing alternative ideas as a new normative framework for the development of social policy programmes, which has been characterized as a ‘normative vacuum’ (Leisering, 2004).
10 Introduction: Challenges to Social Citizenship Hence, we hypothesize that the observable reinforcement of old and new social divides conceals a more fundamental development, which reﬂects the shifts in the political landscape and the erosion of societal power relations of industrial society (Crouch, 2004). Obviously, the former political advocates who predominated in the development of our unemployment security systems (Alber, 1981) have lost their formative agency in shaping social policies, although their resistance to activation policies has become visible in many countries (see Perez/Laparra as well as Betzelt/Bothfeld in this volume).
In other words, citizenship is not just an access mechanism to a community of wealth, but is in itself a substantive element of a citizen’s individual, social and political identity. This implies the insight, linking up to T. H. Marshall’s basic idea, that state intervention, especially in the social realm, would express some normative idea about how social structures and practices should be shaped. As such, social citizenship research emphasizes the regulatory aspects of how citizens’ practices (including social behaviour but also attitudes and self-perception) are affected by public intervention and it addresses not only the substance of welfare state intervention (a speciﬁc pattern of equality or justice) but also with the modes and mechanisms of social interaction.