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By James A. Van Allen

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162. Estimate the greatest angle between the Sun and Mercury that can ever occur (as seen from the Earth). 163. Of the eight other major planets, the one that comes the closest to the Earth is (a) Mercury; (b) Mars; (c) Venus; (d) Jupiter. 164. Describe a geometric method of finding the distance from the Sun to Mars in terms of the astronomical unit. 165. Show how Kepler determined the radius of Mars' orbit. 166. 2 AU. Find the ratio of the gravitational force of the Sun on the Earth to that of Jupiter on the Earth at opposition.

305. Suppose that, for a terrestrial observer, the mean lunar day is defined in the same manner as is the mean solar day. In terms of ordinary hours and minutes, what is the length of the mean lunar day? (a) 24h 10m; (b) 23h 10m; (c) 24h 50m; (d) 23h 56m. 306. An astronaut on the Moon observes the phase of the Earth to be waning gibbous. Hence the phase of the Moon as seen from the Earth is (a) waxing gibbous; (b) waning crescent; (c) waxing crescent; (d) waning gibbous. 307. An astronaut at the center of the Moon's face (as seen from the Earth) observes that the Sun is on the eastern horizon.

All but one of the following are attributed to tidal forces and/or tidal torques: (a) Kepler's laws of planetary motion; (b) precession of the rotational axis of the Earth; (c) the fact that the same face of the Moon is always toward the Earth; (d) the rings of Saturn. 369. High tide in the New York harbor occurred at 21h 30m on 9 October. On 12 October a high tide can be anticipated at (a) 11h 35m; (b) 23h 10m; (c) 14h 35m; (d) 09h 05m. 370. The mean interval between high tides on the Earth is (a) 23h 56m; (b) 24h 50m; (c) 11h 35m; (d) 12h 25m.

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